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Jameson, naturalist to the expedition. Authorized ed ed. New York: J. Jameson, James Sligo.
Other matter of wider strategic application are generally decided at county level by the elected members from all municipal districts meeting in plenary formation Les membres élus, au niveau du district municipal, ont des fonctions spécifiques qui sont déterminées juridiquement pour le district.
Legal functions to improve the coordination of public-funded local and community development programmes and site officiel de sligo trading co limited duplication Une fonction légale concernant le plan local économique et communautaire. Comer, NUI Galway. Regional government NUTS 3a third administrative tier that is present in many other European countries was also weak in Ireland in the early s and lacked executive power.
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Closer alignment of rural and regional policy was proposed in a number of government documents Government of Ireland, andbut limited progress has taken place in integrating rural and regional policy effectively. The evolution of governance and territorial structures associated with the LEADER programme in Ireland therefore took place mainly in association with central and local government. Ireland is considered to have been particularly successful in the formation of such tripartite partnerships McDonagh, ; Moseley, In many areas, a co-operative approach was adopted initially by the local meilleurs projets dinvestissement sur internet 2020 and the LEADER partnerships but tension later arose, in some instances, because the capacity of the latter to operate outside the remit of local government was perceived as a threat Callanan, Research by Moseley et al.
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The territories adopted to implement LEADER were based on the formation of the partnerships and there was considerable variation in the areas involved Figure 1. They included counties e.
The partnership that represented the Gaeltacht areas defined by statute, where Irish or Gaelic is the first language of a majority of the population was distributed between areas mainly along the north western, western and south western coasts where the Gaeltacht is located no.
Reflecting the innovative nature of the LEADER approach, many of the geographical territories arose from common interests instead of being based on the county unit. Local social area-based partnerships were also formed in urban and rural areas to promote social inclusion and offset unemployment these are referred to as social partnerships in the discussion to distinguish them from the LEADER groups.
Although differing in social and economic emphasis, potential for duplication of applications for funding arose because of the large number of different partnerships c. These economic concerns gave rise to questions surrounding efficiency and effectiveness, arising from independent evaluations of the LEADER programme. LAGs submitted proposals for funding to the government department with responsibility for the programme the Department of Agriculture initially Moseley et al.
Funding was allocated to the partnerships selected which appointed support staff and advertised a call for applications for funding of local projects from individuals and groups, under headings that had been agreed with the EC.
These applications were assessed against agreed criteria and decisions were made with regard to those to be funded and the amounts of funding to be granted. External ex-ante, interim and ex-post evaluations were conducted by professional evaluators. The formation and operation of the partnerships were also subject to defined rules, the implementation of which became stricter over time. The partnerships enjoyed considerable independence from the local authorities.
In fact, it could be said that the LEADER partnerships compensated for the absence of governmental structures below the level of the county, in Ireland.
Gradually, however, measures were introduced to bring them within the oversight of the local authorities, beginning in the late s during which time local government reform was also taking place.
The amounts of funding granted and the numbers of LAGs involved changed over time, as did the relationships with local government Table 2.
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Thirty six LAGs were recognised and funded under LEADER 2,and covered all counties in the state, excluding cities, reflecting the success of local groups in preparing proposals approved for funding Storey, As in LEADER 1, some territories coincided with the county areas, some counties contained more than one partnership and some cross-county partnerships existed.
However, where funding was obtained from more than one source, the total amount did not exceed that permitted under the LEADER regulations. In order to avoid duplication of funding, the government transferred responsibility for economic initiatives from the social partnerships to the LEADER partnerships in Cawley, Most of the members represented sectional interests and were site officiel de sligo trading co limited elected by universal franchise among the population in general, as are county councillors councillors were not permitted to become members of the social partnerships until In response to these concerns, the government required the LAGs to liaise with a County Development Board CDBestablished in each county inas part of a local government communitarian reform initiative to enhance representation Government of Ireland, This measure also served to keep the local authorities more aware of the activities being pursued by the partnerships.
Twenty two LAGs with well-developed proposals were funded jointly by the EU and the national government and 16 with less strong proposals were funded by the Irish government solely, made possible by the increased availability of funding as the economy grew strongly Fitzpatrick Associates, Table 2.
Inresponsibility for rural development was moved from the Department of Agriculture to a new Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs DCRGAreflecting the special attention being given to the rural community sector. Concerns were expressed in site officiel de sligo trading co limited expenditure review about duplication of actions and investment between the social site officiel de sligo trading co limited and the LEADER LAGs, notwithstanding the measures that had been taken to avoid such duplication in This proposal evoked a negative response from some of the various groups involved, which did not consider that satisfactory consultation had taken place.
By July two years after the RDP was scheduled to commence25 ILDCs were in place, based on partnerships which already collaborated in delivering social and economic programmes, and 12 additional companies were formed through mergers Table 3 traces the experience in one county.
The offshore islands formed a 38th partnership. The boards of the new development companies were to include four elected councillors and a nominee of the County Manager and were required to have their annual plans endorsed by the CDB in each county. This latter requirement and a requirement for further budgetary reporting to the DCRGA involved additional administration for both the local authorities and the partnerships, especially where a county boundary was crossed.
There were, however, many examples of LAGs and local authorities working productively together in village enhancement projects, for example.
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In response to new EU strategic guidelines for rural development for CEC,relating to greater inclusion of marginalised groups, the ILDC boards increased their membership from the community and voluntary sectors and from minority groups e.
Notwithstanding efforts to promote further democratic representation and efficiencies through the merging of partnerships and closer relationships with local government, an evaluation conducted for the EC identified several weaknesses in the implementation of the RDP in Ireland Dax et al. These included delays in beginning the work of the programme, as a result of the delays with mergers, and additional time required for budgetary reporting to the DCRGA.
It was found that agriculture-related projects took precedence over other projects, arising from LEADER being integrated with agricultural policy. Recent local government reform and the implications for local governance 4 It is recognised that the evolution of local governance in LEADER took place wi The focus here is on the quest for greater democratic representation and efficiencies in public expenditure which were pursued as part of local government reform.
Since the early s, central government had sought methods of reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of local government service delivery. Bringing local governance within the remit of local government was one of the ways of attaining these aims and, at the same time, compensating for some of the responsibilities that had been removed from the latter. These were said to include: their considerable administrative burden; the potential for duplication and overlap between activities because of the many organisations involved; the multiple arrangements for funding and reporting; and the demands and hidden costs associated with the requirement to participate in multiple boards and structures at local level.
It was further pointed out that, in general, local government authorities have limited input into strategy or decision-making with respect to local development programmes and that their involvement should be increased.
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The methods of gaining efficiencies included a sharing of office facilities and services between local authorities and LAGs, and oversight of local and community development programmes by a special committee at a county level, i.
It was recommended that an Inter-Departmental Group be established at a national level to enhance data capture across various programmes and gain efficiencies in expenditure by avoiding the possibility of duplication.
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The membership represents a wide range of public, community and civic society interests in a communitarian approach. There are elements of managerialism involved, however.
It has statutory functions also to improve the coordination of public-funded local and community development programmes and reduce duplication ibid. An almost immediate public protest followed from members of the LAGs and the social partnerships to the establishment of the LCDCs and the wide-ranging powers allocated to them with respect to local development Holland, ; ILDN News, a.
The allocation of responsibility for LEADER to the local authorities will lead, it was felt, to the loss of experienced staff and of the voluntary contributions of members of the management boards ILDN News, b. Further, local authorities may not be permitted to access philanthropic funds, to supplement funding from the EU and the national government, as the LAGs have been able to do in the past ILDN News, c.
Conclusions 29Responsibility for local development and service delivery has been given to new public-private-voluntary partnerships, in both urban and rural areas in many countries since the s, in a form of neo-governmentality Brenner et al.
The benefits have involved the devolution of greater influence to local communities over actions that affect their wellbeing and the creation of a sense of ownership and empowerment OECD, Negative site officiel de sligo trading co limited have been associated with undermining the role of local government Swyngedouw, There is a tension between new forms of participative democracy and representative democracy and the latter may seek to recover its perceived loss of influence.
Local government reform, designed to increase democratic engagement and gain financial efficiencies, has also been in progress during the same period of time, often initiated by central governments, with implications for the relationships between new forms of governance and local government. This paper addressed these relationships in the context of Ireland. In several instances they diverged from the existing county structures and, in general, had considerable independence from the local government authorities, although often working with them on particular projects.
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Social partnerships were also established in Ireland to promote inclusion and offset unemployment. By the late s, there was a proliferation of governance entities operating within various geographical areas with limited links with local government. Evaluations that were conducted as part of the technologies of governing identified a democratic deficit in representation and some duplication of funding and effort.
Remedial measured were site officiel de sligo trading co limited by central government to promote greater integration which were imbricated with measures for local government reform. Increased representation of local interests in new local government structures was provided in a spirit of communitarianism Callanan, but there were also strong elements of managerialism in the actions taken by the Irish government Forde, Managerialism has become more pronounced in the reforms introduced in which appear to undermine the subsidiarity associated with LEADER.
However, the democratic representative role of local government confers particular capacities to respond to any perceived undermining of its influence.
In the Irish case, after an initial liberal approach to the formation of governance structures, in order to deliver a range of local services with EU funding support and limited involvement of local government, central government supported closer alignment with the latter. This support has been promoted as part of the communitarian pursuit of greater democratic representation combined with managerial intervention, designed to gain efficiencies in public expenditure through co-ordination and oversight within the context of the local government county structure.